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1. BIRD, T.S. (ed): "Mutual coupling between antennas", John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, to be published 2021. [ISBN-13-9781-119-56498-0]

Mutual Coupling Between Antennas

Trevor S. Bird (editor)


Antenna mutual coupling occurs naturally through the electromagnetic field.  It is sometimes neglected in design with serious consequences. Mutual coupling has also been used to improve the performance of arrays by placing the elements closer together or with nearby parasitics. Whilst detailed design is possible through the several accurate computer packages that are available, greater understanding of what is possible by direct connection with the physics through analysis that often creates simple models. The intention of this book is to cover the main techniques that depend clearly on an understanding through Maxwell’s equations. It covers the subject of mutual coupling comprehensibly through topics written by experts in the area. These topics include coupling in wire antennas, waveguides and horns, co-sited antennas, MIMO antenna, large arrays, and measurement techniques.


Chapters & Author(s)

1. Introduction (Trevor S. Bird)

2. Basics of Antenna Mutual Coupling (Trevor S. Bird)

3. Methods in the Analysis of Mutual Coupling in Antennas (Trevor S. Bird)

4. Mutual Coupling in Arrays of Wire Antennas (Trevor S. Bird)

5. Arrays of Planar Aperture Antennas (Trevor S. Bird)

6. Arrays of Microstrip Patch Antennas (Trevor S. Bird)

7. Mutual Coupling Between Antennas on Conformal Surfaces (Trevor S. Bird)

8. Mutual Coupling Between Co-sited Antennas and Antennas on Large Structures (Derek McNamara and Eqab Almajali)

9. Mutual Coupling and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Communications (Karl F. Warnick)

10. Mutual Coupling in Beamforming and Interferometric Antennas (Hoi Shun Antony Lui and Trevor S. Bird)

11. Techniques for Minimizing Mutual Coupling Effects in Arrays (Hoi Shun Antony Lui and Trevor S. Bird)

12. Noise Performance in the Presence of Mutual Coupling (Christophe Craeye, Jean Cavillot, and Eloy de Lera Acedo)

13. Methods for Analyzing Mutual Coupling in Large Arrays (Christophe Craeye and Ha Bui Van)

14. Measurement of Mutual Coupling Effects (Alpha O. Bah and Trevor S. Bird)

APPENDIX A: Useful Identities (Trevor S. Bird)
APPENDIX B: Bessel and Hankel Functions (Trevor S. Bird)
APPENDIX C: Properties of Hankel Transform Functions (Trevor S. Bird)
APPENDIX D: Properties of Surface Fock Functions (Trevor S. Bird)
APPENDIX E: Four Parameter Noise Representation of an Amplifier (Christophe Craeye, Jean Cavillot, and Eloy de Lera Acedo)
APPENDIX F: Equivalent Noise Currents (Christophe Craeye, Jean Cavillot, and Eloy de Lera Acedo)
APPENDIX G: Basic Reciprocity Result (Christophe Craeye, Jean Cavillot, and Eloy de Lera Acedo)
APPENDIX H: On the Extended Admittance Matrix (Christophe Craeye and Ha Bui Van)


2. BIRD, T.S.: "Fundamentals of aperture antennas and arrays: From theory to design, fabrication and testing", John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016. [ISBN-13-978-1-118-92356-6]. For details go to http://www.wiley.com/go/bird448 .


The topic of aperture antennas encompasses many antennas in common daily use. Typical examples include waveguides, horns, reflectors, lenses, slits, slots and microstrip antennas. In this book we describe the underlying theory and application of these antennas as well as their use for arrays.

 Aperture antennas are normally associated with directional beams and, indeed, this is their role in many applications. Aperture antenna scan also occur on non-planar or curved surfaces such as on aircraft or ground-based vehicles. These antennas may consist of a single radiator or in arrays. In this form they are often used to provide directional or shaped beams.

Directional beams are needed in terrestrial and satellite microwave links to efficiently use the available power as well as to reduce interference and noise. Radar systems also require directional antennas to identify targets. As well, arrays of aperture antennas can produce almost omni-directional radiation.

A limitation of a directional planar antenna is that when it is scanned from broadside the beam broadens and the pattern deteriorates. When the antenna is conformal to a convex surface, such as a cylinder or a cone, the beam can be scanned in discrete steps through an arc while maintaining a constant pattern. Of importance in the design of low sidelobe antenna arrays, both planar and conformal, is predicting the effect of mutual coupling between the array elements. Maximum performance is achieved from arrays when the coupling between elements is fully taken into account.

This book gives an introduction to the techniques that areused to design common aperture antennas as well as some approaches to their fabrication and testing. The intention is for it to be a single textbook for a course in antennas in the final year undergraduate or in a Masters degree by course-work. It assumes that the reader has undertaken a course on Maxwell’s equations, fields and waves. Some of these topics are reviewed in the early few chapters to provide continuity and background for the remainder of the book. The antennas covered include horns, reflectors and arrays. Some antennas covered in some detail include pyramidal and corrugated horns, parabolic and spherical reflectors, reflectarrays, planar lenses and coaxial waveguide array feeds. To provide more than a simplified treatment of arrays, the topic of mutual coupling is covered in more detail than most similar books on this topic. Also included is an introduction to sources and arrays on non-planar surfaces, which is of importance for applications involving aerodynamic surfaces and for making aperture antennas unobtrusive. A chapter is included on modern aperture antennas that extend the concepts introduced in earlier chapters. This is to show where advances have been made in the past and how they could be made in the future. Also included are some topics of a practical nature detailing some techniques for fabrication of aperture antennas and their measurement.



1.     Introduction

2.     Background theory

3.     Fields Radiated by an Aperture

4.     Waveguide and Horn Antennas

5.     Microstrip  Patch Antenna

6.     Reflector Antennas

7.     Arrays of Aperture Antennas

8.     Conformal Arrays

9.     Reflectarrays and other Aperture Antennas

10.    Aperture Antennas in Applications

APPENDIX A       Useful Identities

APPENDIX B       Bessel Functions

APPENDIX C       Proof of Stationary Behaviour of Mutual Impedance

APPENDIX D       Free-space Dyadic Magnetic Greens Function

APPENDIX E       Complex Fresnel Integrals

APPENDIX F:      Properties of Hankel Transform Functions

APPENDIX G:      Properties of Fock Functions for Convex Surfaces


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